Kenneth Skrable, George Chabot, Clayton French, and K.A.L., Inc.

**A Few Words from the American Academy of Health Physics:**

The exam solutions and answers presented on these web pages are the sole product of Kenneth Skrable, George Chabot, Clayton French, and K.A.L., Inc. While these solutions are very likely very good ones, having been prepared by such knowledgable and dedicated educators, they are NOT the "official" solutions prepared by the American Board of Health Physics. Nor are they the ones used in the grading of candidates' examinations. The Board does not assert that these solutions are correct or the best ones possible.

**SOLUTIONS AND ANSWERS TO ABHP EXAMS**

Methodology in Obtaining Solutions to the ABHP Exam

Equations containing either algebraic symbols or their given numerical values and corresponding units are used to obtain numerical answers for quantities asked in a question on an American Board of Health Physics (ABHP) exam. Symbols representing quantities in an equation are defined either in our list of general given information after the stated premise to a question or within the solution to each part of a question. The algebraic symbol for a quantity is understood to have a numerical value corresponding to certain specified units. When symbols for quantities are contained in the ABHP question itself, these same symbols are used in the equations giving the solution(s). Any necessary change in a given symbol or in its given numerical value and units will be indicated in our solution. If no changes are indicated in our solutions, then the given numerical values and specified units are understood to apply to the symbols stated in the question. To obtain numerical solutions to the various parts of a question, bolded numerical values and their corresponding units for given or calculated quantities are understood to be used in place of the algebraic symbols representing those quantities in the equations. This procedure is followed to make clear our solutions and answers, which are identified by a * to the left of the text or equation containing a numerical answer, which also is bolded along with its corresponding units. Except for answers read from given figures, other numerical answers are shown to three significant digits regardless of the number of significant digits of input quantities used to calculate an answer. Sometimes only the numerical values and their corresponding units for given quantities are shown in an equation giving the solution for another quantity.

To make clear our solutions, more detail and information are provided in our solutions than needed or recommended. Some quantities stated for an ABHP question sometimes are not used in the solutions for that question. Such extraneous or irrelevant quantities may or may not be listed in our summary of the given information to a question, but their algebraic symbols and their numerical values will not be bolded if listed. When given extraneous or irrelevant quantities could be used in a solution, they will be listed, and an explanation sometimes will be given in comments on any confusion that might arise from the use of such quantities. Sometimes a particular question cannot be solved with the information explicitly given, which may require the candidate to make certain assumptions. Solutions to such questions will be provided, however, along with the required assumptions. Comments provided in our solutions are intended to provide guidance to candidates in answering a particular question, and sometimes the information in a comment is needed for a solution. We encourage readers of our solutions to this exam to contact us when they find an error in our solutions or comments.

CAUTION: Equations presented in these solutions frequently involve some very small symbols. Please be sure to make free use of Adobe Acrobat's "+" (zoom-in) button to avoid errors. Likewise, printers having an HONEST resolution of less than 300 dpi may fail to provide adequate rendition. Symbols especially vulnerable to such errors include the "right arrow" when used as part of a "limit as x approaches 0" and the congruence symbol.--Webmaster

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